Herring

We have seen major declines in Herring stocks over the last many years. They seem to cycle sharply and have decreased while their close relatives, the sardines, have really had an explosion in their population. Tightly managed by government.

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This article is about the species of fish. For other uses, see Herring (disambiguation).
Herring
The Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus
Global commercial capture of herrings
in million tonnes reported by the FAO 1950–2010[1]

Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.

Herring often move in large schools around fishing banks and near the coast. The most abundant and commercially important species belong to the genus Clupea, found particularly in shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea, as well as off the west coast of South America. Three species of Clupea are recognised, and provide about 90% of all herrings captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring, providing over half of all herring capture. Fishes called herring are also found in India, in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal.

Herring played a pivotal role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe,[2] and early in the twentieth century their study was fundamental to the evolution of fisheries science.[3][4] These oily fish[5] also have a long history as an important food fish, and are often salted, smoked, or pickled.

Species

This article is
one of a series on
Commercial fish
Blue walleye.jpg
Large pelagic
billfish, bonito
mackerel, salmon
shark, tuna

Forage
anchovy, herring
menhaden, sardine
shad, sprat

Demersal
cod, eel, flatfish
pollock, ray
Mixed
carp, tilapia

A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings. The origins of the term herring is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a "host, multitude", in reference to the large schools they form.[6]

The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea.[4]Clupea contains three species: the Atlantic herring (the type species) found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, and the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remain unclear.

Herrings in the genus Clupea
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAO ITIS IUCN status
Araucanian herring Clupea bentincki Norman, 1936 28.4 cm cm kg years 2.69 [7] [8] [9] Not assessed
Atlantic herring Clupea harengus Linnaeus, 1758 45.0 cm 30.0 cm 1.05 kg 22 years 3.23 [10] [11] [12] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[13]
Pacific herring Clupea pallasii Valenciennes, 1847 46.0 cm 25.0 cm 19 years 3.15 [10] [14] [15] Not assessed

In addition, a number of related species, all in the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings. The table immediately below includes those members of the Clupeidae family referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Other herrings in the family Clupeidae
Group Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAO ITIS IUCN status
Freshwater herrings Toothed river herring Clupeoides papuensis (Ramsay & Ogilby, 1886) cm cm kg years [16] [17] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[18]
Round herrings Day's round herring Dayella malabarica (Day, 1873) cm cm kg years [19] [20] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[21]
Dwarf round herring Jenkinsia lamprotaenia (Gosse, 1851) cm cm kg years [22] [23] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[24]
Gilchrist's round herring Gilchristella aestuaria (Gilchrist, 1913 cm cm kg years [25] [26] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[27]
Little-eye round herring Jenkinsia majua Whitehead, 1963 cm cm kg years [28] [29] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[30]
Red-eye round herring Etrumeus teres (De Kay, 1842) 33 cm 25 cm kg years [31] [32] [33] Not assessed
Two-finned round herring Spratellomorpha bianalis (Bertin, 1940) 4.5 cm cm kg years 3.11 [34] [35] DD IUCN 3 1.svg Data deficient[36]
Whitehead's round herring Etrumeus whiteheadi (Wongratana, 1983) 20 cm cm kg years 3.4 [37] [38] [39] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[40]
Venezuelan herring Jenkinsia parvula Cervigón and Velasquez, 1978 cm cm kg years [41] [42] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[43]
Thread herrings Galapagos thread herring Opisthonema berlangai (Günther, 1867) 26 cm 18 cm kg years 3.27 [44] [45] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[46]
Middling thread herring Opisthonema medirastre Berry & Barrett, 1963 cm cm kg years [47] [48] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[49]
Pacific thread herring Opisthonema libertate (Günther, 1867) 30 cm 22 cm kg years [50] [51] [45] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[52]
Slender thread herring Opisthonema bulleri (Regan, 1904) cm cm kg years [53] [54] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[55]
Other Blackstripe herring Lile nigrofasciata Castro-Aguirre Ruiz-Campos and Balart, 2002 cm cm kg years [56] [57] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[58]
Denticle herring Denticeps clupeoides Clausen, 1959 cm cm kg years [59] [60] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[61]
Dogtooth herring Chirocentrodon bleekerianus (Poey, 1867) cm cm kg years [62] [63] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[64]
Graceful herring Lile gracilis Castro-Aguirre and Vivero, 1990 cm cm kg years [65] [66] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[67]
Pacific Flatiron herring Harengula thrissina (Jordan and Gilbert, 1882) cm cm kg years [68] [69] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[70]
Sanaga pygmy herring Thrattidion noctivagus Roberts, 1972 cm cm kg years [71] [72] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[73]
Silver-stripe round herring Spratelloides gracilis (Temminck & Schlegel, 1846) 10.5 cm cm kg years 3.0 [74] [75] Not assessed
Striped herring Lile stolifera (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882) cm cm kg years [76] [77] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[78]
West African pygmy herring Sierrathrissa leonensis Thys van den Audenaerde, 1969 cm cm kg years [79] [80] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[81]

There are also a number of other species called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings (such as the lake herring, which is a salmonid). Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, so what might be called a herring in one locality might be called something else in another locality. Some examples:

Other fishes called herring
Common name Scientific name Maximum
length
Common
length
Maximum
weight
Maximum
age
Trophic
level
Fish
Base
FAO ITIS IUCN status
Longfin herring Bigeyed longfin herring Opisthopterus macrops (Günther, 1867) cm cm kg years [82] [83] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[84]
Dove's longfin herring Opisthopterus dovii (Günther 1868) cm cm kg years [85] [86] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[87]
Hatchet herring Ilisha fuerthii (Steindachner, 1875) cm cm kg years [88] [89] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[90]
Panama longfin herring Odontognathus panamensis (Steindachner, 1876) cm cm kg years [91] [92] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[93]
Tropical longfin herring Neoopisthopterus tropicus (Hildebrand 1946) cm cm kg years [94] [95] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[96]
Vaqueira longfin herring Opisthopterus effulgens (Regan 1903) cm cm kg years [97] [98] VU IUCN 3 1.svg Vulnerable[99]
Equatorial longfin herring Opisthopterus equatorialis Hildebrand, 1946 cm cm kg years [100] [101] LC IUCN 3 1.svg Least concern[102]
Wolf herring Dorab wolf-herring Chirocentrus dorab (Forsskål, 1775) 100 cm 60 cm kg years 4.50 [103] [104] [105] Not assessed
Whitefin wolf-herring Chirocentrus nudus Swainson, 1839 100 cm cm 0.41 kg years 4.19 [106] [107] Not assessed
Freshwater whitefish Lake herring (cisco) Coregonus artedi Lesueur, 1818 cm cm kg years [108] [109] Not assessed

Characteristics

Clupea pallasii, the Pacific herring

The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae (herrings, shads, sardines, menhadens), which comprises some 200 species that share similar features. These silvery-coloured fish have a single dorsal fin, which is soft, without spines. They have no lateral line and have a protruding lower jaw. Their size varies between subspecies: the Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) is small, 14 to 18 centimetres; the proper Atlantic herring (C. h. harengus) can grow to about 46 cm (18 inches) and weigh up 700 g (1.5 pounds); and Pacific herring grow to about 38 cm (15 inches).

Life cycle

Herring spawn

At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year. Each spawns at a different time and place (spring, summer, autumn and winter herrings). Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 metres (0–16 ft) of water while North Sea (bank) herrings spawn at up to 200 metres (660 ft) in autumn. Eggs are laid on the sea bed, on rock, stones, gravel, sand or beds of algae. "...the fish were darting rapidly about, and those who have opportunity to see the fish spawning in more shallow water ... state that both males and females are in constant motion, rubbing against one another and upon the bottom, apparently by pressure aiding in the discharge of the eggs and milt" (Moore at Cross Island, Maine).

Females may deposit from 20,000 up to 40,000 eggs, according to age and size, averaging about 30,000. In sexually mature herrings, the genital organs grow before spawning, reaching about one-fifth of its total weight.

The eggs sink to the bottom, where they stick in layers or clumps to gravel, seaweed or stones, by means of their mucus coating, or to any other objects on which they chance to settle.

If the egg layers are too thick they suffer from oxygen depletion and often die, entangled in a maze of fucus. They need substantial water microturbulence, generally provided by wave action or coastal currents. Survival is highest in crevices and behind solid structures, because predators feast on openly disposed eggs. The individual eggs are 1 to 1.4 millimetres (0.039 to 0.055 in) in diameter, depending on the size of the parent fish and also on the local race. Incubation time is about 40 days at 3 °C (37 °F), 15 days at 7 °C (45 °F), 11 days at 10 °C (50 °F). Eggs die at temperatures above 19 °C (66 °F).

The larvae are 5 to 6 millimetres (0.20 to 0.24 in) long at hatching, with a small yolk sac that is absorbed by the time the larva reaches 10 millimetres (0.39 in). Only the eyes are well pigmented. The rest of the body is nearly transparent, virtually invisible under water and in natural lighting conditions.

The dorsal fin forms at 15 to 17 millimetres (0.59 to 0.67 in), the anal fin at about 30 millimetres (1.2 in)—the ventral fins are visible and the tail becomes well forked at 30 to 35 millimetres (1.4 in)— at about 40 millimetres (1.6 in) the larva begins to look like a herring.

The larvae are very slender and can easily be distinguished from all other young fish of their range by the location of the vent, which lies close to the base of the tail. But distinguishing clupeoids one from another in their early stages requires critical examination, especially telling herring from sprats.

At one year they are about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) long, and they first spawn at three years.

Egg to juvenile
Transparent eggs with the yolk and eyes visible and one larva hatched.
Freshly hatched larva in a drop of water besides a match to demonstrate how tiny it is. The black eyes and the yolk are visible.
Young larva in typical oblique swimming position, with remaining yolk still attached. Another larva at the upper right is in the classical S-shape of the beginning phase of attacking a copepod.
Still transparent juvenile herring, about 38 mm long and 3 months old. Visible are the otoliths, the gut, the silvery swimbladder and the heart.

Ecology

Prey

Herrings are a prominent converter of zooplankton into fish, consuming copepods, arrow worms, pelagic amphipods, mysids and krill in the pelagic zone. Conversely, they are a central prey item or forage fish for higher trophic levels. The reasons for this success is still enigmatic; one speculation attributes their dominance to the huge, extremely fast cruising schools they inhabit.

Herring feed on phytoplankton and as they mature they start to consume larger organisms.Herring also feed on zooplankton, tiny animals that are found in oceanic surface waters, and small fish and fish larvae. Copepods and other tiny crustaceans are the most common zooplankton eaten by herring. During daylight herring stay in the safety of deep water, feeding at the surface only at night when there is less chance of being seen by predators. They swim along with their mouths open, filtering the plankton from the water as it passes through their gills. Young herring mostly hunt copepods individually, by means of "particulate feeding" or "raptorial feeding",[110] a feeding method also used by adult herring on larger prey items like krill. If prey concentrations reach very high levels, as in microlayers, at fronts or directly below the surface, herring become filter feeders, driving several meters forward with wide open mouth and far expanded opercula, then closing and cleaning the gill rakers for a few milliseconds.

Copepods, the primary zooplankton, are a major item on the forage fish menu. Copepods are typically one millimetre (0.04 in) to two millimetres (0.08 in) long, with a teardrop shaped body. Some scientists say they form the largest animal biomass on the planet.[111] Copepods are very alert and evasive. They have large antennae (see photo below left). When they spread their antennae they can sense the pressure wave from an approaching fish and jump with great speed over a few centimetres. If copepod concentrations reach high levels, schooling herrings adopt a method called ram feeding. In the photo below, herring ram feed on a school of copepods. They swim with their mouth wide open and their opercula fully expanded.

Hunting copepods
This copepod has its antenna spread (click to enlarge). The antenna detects the pressure wave of an approaching fish.
School of herrings ram feeding on a school of copepods with opercula and mouth expanded. The fish swim in a grid with a distance of the jump length of their prey, as indicated by the animation at the right.
Animation showing how herrings hunt in a synchronised way to capture an alert and evasive copepod

The fish swim in a grid where the distance between them is the same as the jump length of their prey, as indicated in the animation above right. In the animation, juvenile herring hunt the copepods in this synchronised way. The copepods sense with their antennae the pressure-wave of an approaching herring and react with a fast escape jump. The length of the jump is fairly constant. The fish align themselves in a grid with this characteristic jump length. A copepod can dart about 80 times before it tires. After a jump, it takes it 60 milliseconds to spread its antennae again, and this time delay becomes its undoing, as the almost endless stream of herrings allows a herring to eventually snap the copepod. A single juvenile herring could never catch a large copepod.[110]

Other pelagic prey eaten by herrings includes fish eggs, larval snails, diatoms by herring larvae below 20 millimetres (0.79 in), tintinnids by larvae below 45 millimetres (1.8 in), molluscan larvae, menhaden larvae, krill, mysids, smaller fishes, pteropods, annelids, Calanus, Centropagidae and Meganyctiphanes norvegica.

Herrings, along with cod and sprat, are the most important commercial species to humans in the Baltic Sea.[112] The analysis of the stomach contents of these fish indicate cod is the top predator, preying on the herring and sprat.[112][113] Sprat are competitive with herrings for the same food resources. This is evident in the two species' vertical migration in the Baltic Sea, where they compete for the limited zooplankton that is available and necessary for their survival.[114] Sprat are highly selective in their diet and eat only zooplankton, while herrings are more eclectic, adjusting their diet as they grow in size.[114] In the Baltic, copepods of the genus Acartia can be present in large numbers. However, they are small in size with a high escape response, so herring and sprat avoid trying to catch them. These copepods also tend to dwell more in surface waters, whereas herrings and sprat, especially during the day, tend to dwell in deeper waters.[114]

Predators

Seabirds, like this European herring gull, attack herring schools from above
Humpback whales attack herring schools by lunging from below
See also: Predator avoidance in schooling fish, Bait ball

Predators of herring include seabirds, marine mammals such as dolphins, porpoises, whales, seals and sea lions, predatory fish such as sharks, billfish, tuna, salmon, striped bass, cod and halibut. Fishermen also catch and eat herring.

The predators often operate cooperatively in groups, using different techniques to panic or herd a school of herrings into a tight bait ball. Different predators species then use different techniques to pick the fish off in the bait ball. The sailfish raises its sail to make it appear much larger. Swordfish charge at high speed through the bait balls, slashing with their swords to kill or stun prey. They then turn and return to consume their "catch". Thresher sharks use their long tails to stun the shoaling fish. These sharks compact their prey school by swimming around them and splashing the water with their tails, often in pairs or small groups. They then strike them sharply with the upper lobe of their tails to stun them.[115]Spinner sharks charge vertically through the school, spinning on their axis with their mouths open and snapping all around. The shark's momentum at the end of these spiraling runs often carries it into the air.[116][117]

Some whales lunge feed on bait balls.[118] Lunge feeding is an extreme feeding method, where the whale accelerates from below the bait ball to a high velocity and then opens its mouth to a large gape angle. This generates the water pressure required to expand its mouth and engulf and filter a huge amount of water and fish. Lunge feeding by rorquals, a family of huge baleen whales that includes the blue whale, is said to be the largest biomechanical event on Earth.[119]

Fisheries

↑  All herrings 2010 [1]
Green = Clupea herrings
Herring research sample catch

Adult herring are harvested for their flesh and eggs, and they are often used as baitfish. The trade in herring is an important sector of many national economies. In Europe the fish has been called the "silver of the sea", and its trade has been so significant to many countries that it has been regarded as the most commercially important fishery in history.[120]

Environmental Defense have suggested that the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) fishery is an environmentally responsible fishery.[121]

As food

A kipper or split smoked herring
Main article: Herring as food

Herring has been a staple food source since at least 3000 B.C. There are numerous ways the fish is served and many regional recipes: eaten raw, fermented, pickled, or cured by other techniques, such as being smoked as kippers.

Herring are very high in the long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA.[122] They are a source of vitamin D.

Water pollution influences the amount of herring that may be safely consumed. For example, large Baltic herring slightly exceeds recommended limits with respect to PCB and dioxin, although some sources point out that the cancer-reducing effect of omega-3 fatty acids is statistically stronger than the cancer-causing effect of PCBs and dioxins.[123] The contaminant levels depend on the age of the fish which can be inferred from their size. Baltic herrings larger than 17 cm may be eaten twice a month, while herrings smaller than 17 cm can be eaten freely.[124]Mercury in fish also influences the amount of fish that women who are pregnant or planning to be pregnant within the next one or two years may safely eat.

History

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Based on data sourced from the relevant FAO Species Fact Sheets
  2. ^ Cushing, David H (1975) Marine ecology and fisheries Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09911-0.
  3. ^ Went, AEJ (1972) "The History of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Section B. Biology, 73: 351–360.doi:10.1017/S0080455X0000240X
  4. ^ a b Pauly, Daniel (2004) Darwin's Fishes: An Encyclopedia of Ichthyology, Ecology, and Evolution Page 109, Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82777-5.
  5. ^ "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 2004-06-24. 
  6. ^ Herring Online Etymology Dictionary, Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  7. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupea bentincki" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  8. ^ Clupea bentincki (Norman, 1936) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  9. ^ "Clupea bentincki". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  10. ^ a b Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupea harengus" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  11. ^ Clupea harengus (Linnaeus, 1758) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  12. ^ "Clupea harengus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  13. ^ Herdson D & Priede I (2011). "Clupea harengus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  14. ^ Clupea pallasii (Valenciennes, 1847) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  15. ^ "Clupea pallasii". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  16. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Clupeoides papuensis" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  17. ^ "Clupeoides papuensis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. ^ Allen G (2010). "Clupeoides papuensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  19. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Dayella malabarica" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  20. ^ "Dayella malabarica". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  21. ^ Ali A & Raghavan R (2011). "Dayella malabarica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  22. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Jenkinsia lamprotaenia" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  23. ^ "Jenkinsia lamprotaenia". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  24. ^ Cotto A, Medina E & Bernal O (2010). "Jenkinsia lamprotaenia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  25. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Gilchristella aestuaria" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  26. ^ "Gilchristella aestuaria". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  27. ^ Bills R (2007). "Gilchristella aestuaria". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  28. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Jenkinsia majua" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  29. ^ "Jenkinsia majua". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  30. ^ Munroe TA & Priede IG (2010). "Jenkinsia majua". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  31. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Etrumeus teres" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  32. ^ Etrumeus teres (Norman, 1936) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  33. ^ "Etrumeus teres". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  34. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Spratellomorpha bianalis" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  35. ^ "Spratellomorpha bianalis". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  36. ^ Loiselle, P; et al. (2011). "Spratellomorpha bianalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  37. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Etrumeus whiteheadi" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  38. ^ Etrumeus whiteheadi (Wongratana, 1983) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  39. ^ "Etrumeus whiteheadi". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  40. ^ Heemstra PC, Munroe TA & Priede IG (2011). "Etrumeus whiteheadi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  41. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Jenkinsia parvula" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  42. ^ "Jenkinsia parvula". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  43. ^ Cotto A, Medina E & Bernal O (2010). "Jenkinsia parvula". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  44. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema berlangai" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  45. ^ a b "Opisthonema libertate". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  46. ^ Iwamoto T & Eschmeyer W (2010). "Opisthonema berlangai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  47. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema medirastre" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  48. ^ "Opisthonema medirastre". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  49. ^ Cotto A, Medina E & Bernal O (2010). "Opisthonema medirastre". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  50. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema libertate" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  51. ^ Opisthonema libertate (Günther, 1867) FAO, Species Fact Sheet. Retrieved April 2012.
  52. ^ Cotto A, Medina E & Bernal O (2010). "Opisthonema libertate". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  53. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Opisthonema bulleri" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  54. ^ "Opisthonema bulleri". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  55. ^ Cotto A, Medina E & Bernal O (2010). "Opisthonema bulleri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  56. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2012). "Lile nigrofasciata" in FishBase. April 2012 version.
  57. ^ "Lile nigrofasciata". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  58. ^ Iwamoto T & Eschmeyer W (2010). "Lile nigrofasciata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved April 2012.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
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Bibliography

Further reading

External links

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herring